Simple Nephrectomy is the term used for the complete removal of the kidney, indicated in multiple renal pathologies, both, the ones that lead to total loss of the renal function, either obstructive or not, as the inflammatory, infectious, hereditary, and congenital ones, and also the ones that present renovascular hypertension.
Classically, the organ was always removed through a very painful surgical incision, because of the need to separate the entire abdominal wall, including, besides the skin, several layers of muscles. With laparoscopy, the incisions are comparatively minimum, thus, reducing the need for painkillers; and reducing the length of hospital stay and recovery.
The first laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed by Professor Clayman et al, in 1991, when an 85-year-old woman was treated for a benign disease (oncocytoma) in a surgery lasting seven hours. Since then, thanks to the development of the technique, allied with the technological development of instruments and equipment, laparoscopy has been accepted as the best approach in most institutions.
Literature studies, in turn, have shown its clear superiority, bringing numerous benefits for the patients, due to a minimally invasive technique.